Review: How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise

[Note: This review appeared in the Washington Independent Review of Books in December 2014. I am reproducing it here with some minor formatting changes.]

Seminal moments in our popular culture arrive less often than we claim, and their impact on our lives often requires time to manifest. Chris Taylor, deputy editor of Mashable and an undeniably rabid “Star Wars” fan, presents a compelling argument that the premiere of “Star Wars” was just such a moment, touching the entire human population. His new book, How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise, is a social history of the franchise. More than a chronicle of movie production or an inventory of licensing agreements, it is a far-reaching examination of how the six-movie (and counting) film series changed the world and how the world shaped the franchise.

Taylor weaves his story through many short chapters, and he is not afraid to wander afield when necessary. He starts at the beginning with the founders of the science-fiction genre – H.G. Wells and Jules Verne – to illustrate the distinction between fantasy and science fiction. Later, this legacy explains the divergence of George Lucas’ space opera and Gene Roddenberry’s (the creator of “Star Trek”) futurist vision. Taylor discusses the influence of serial science fiction from the 1940s and 50s, including Lucas’ favorite, “Flash Gordon.”

As any good history demands, this is not simply a story about the movies or George Lucas. We are not only given a cohesive picture of Lucas’ formative years and social influences at home and in school, but also an adequate look at the cultural influences that preceded “Star Wars.” Film school social networks suggest how the Creator – Lucas’ self-proclaimed title – moved toward the realization of his childhood dream of creating a space fantasy/opera. Even Alejandro Jodorowsky’s stillborn “Dune” project demonstrates how failures liberated ideas and talent to change the direction of science-fiction filmmaking by cross-pollinating writers and special effects people. George Lucas may have occupied the watershed position for science-fiction cinema, but he was the product of hundreds of incremental forces.

The cornerstone of any franchise is the fan base, and multiple stories throughout the book emphasize its passion and influence. Albin Johnson’s tragic injury in an automobile accident created a circuitous route to the “Fightin’ 501st” Stormtrooper legion and their adoption as an official standard bearer at Star Wars events. This more than cosplay, it traces both the depth of cultural assimilation across the globe and the embrace of such movements by Lucas. What became known as the Expanded Universe of books, animated series, and other media not only allowed for creativity outside of the franchise, but also provided an environment for ideas to germinate. The success of the movie franchise – despite its uneven critical acceptance by fans – is intimately linked to the familial communities that flourish around the world. Taylor does an excellent job documenting these stories.

How Star Wars Conquered the Universe excels when finding anecdotes to reveal its message. In this regard, there is no stronger writing than the Introduction, which recounts Taylor’s visit to the Navajo Nation for the first screening of “Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope” dubbed in the native language of Diné. This visit – 35 years after the film’s premiere – hoped to discover the few people left on the planet still unaware of the franchise’s cultural impact. We are introduced to George James Sr., who is not only significant for his isolation from “Star Wars,” but also because he is one of the last Code Talkers, a group of World War II veterans who crafted unbreakable code from the Navajo language. Their code was impenetrable because of the cultural barriers between the Navajo and the rest of the world. Now these folks are the latest adopters. James represents the difficulty of transporting myth across cultures, but by the end of the tale (and the screening of the movie), we realize that “Star Wars” has achieved that very goal.

A disappointing omission from the book is an explanation for the movies’ limited distribution channels. After finishing the chapter on the filming of “Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back,” I took a break from reading in order to rent the movie. It took no time to realize that it was unavailable in digital format (although you can still buy a LaserDisc version). A bit of research on the Web uncovered myriad conspiracies and explanations, but none could be verified or seemed credible. In a world in which even this 50-something no longer keeps a Blu-ray or DVD player, this strikes me as a huge revenue opportunity being ignored. With all of Taylor’s access to executives from Lucasfilm and its owner, Disney, finding the answer to that question would have been valuable and insightful.

Still, How Star Wars Conquered the Universe engaged me in much the same way as the movies: It was informative and entertaining, even though I had to overlook its flaws from time to time. Taylor’s narrative occasionally strays, but there are great benefits to his storytelling. The book has iconic moments (like the Navajo Nation discussion) and there are sections that fade quickly. But as many fans of the “Star Wars” franchise will tell you, we watch the cable-TV marathons, are instantly transported back to that Memorial Day Weekend in 1977, and talk online with giddy excitement about the next release. Our parents are familiar with the Force and our children play with light sabers. For all of us in this global community, this is definitely a book you will want to read.

Visiting the 9/11 Memorial Museum

Beyond the characteristic of self-awareness, which is shared by other species, humans have an obsession with commemoration. Our focus on legacy extends well beyond the desire of our genes to procreate, afflicting us in a way that drives our linear existence during the relatively short time we enjoy what is called life.

9/11 Reflecting PoolA product of this obsession is the memorial, which manifest itself in myriad forms across the landscape. From wall graffiti to wilting flowers on a roadside, or something more ephemeral like a candlelight vigil, memorials are designed to evoke remembrance by connecting our personal experiences to the object we are commemorating. Whether or not we actually remember the subject of the memorial, we leave the experience feeling something that is personal and satisfying.

With that in mind I visited the 9/11 Memorial Museum recently with the concern that the experience would leave me emotionally drained and intellectually wanting. The exhibit’s mission, “to bear solemn witness to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993,” suggests a role that is more memorial than museum. Mixing memorial and museum creates a number of thorny issues. While many have complained about the gift shop — profiting from commerce in a place of solemnity — that is a minor matter compared to the systemic design issues. The memorial is clearly, if not singularly, designed to evoke a strong emotional response and encourage visitors to personalize the experience. “Where was I on that morning?” “What did I feel?” This is great for generating empathy but interferes with the process of understanding that the museum should foster. A museum owes its visitors a public history experience, one which includes the perspective, knowledge, and narration of the curators. If visitors personalize the attacks, then their ability to incorporate the narrative and learn is degraded.

WTC TridentThe mood is set immediately upon entering, as you walk down a corridor full of projected images and audio testimonies taken from around the globe. People describe how they felt upon hearing the news and watching the event unfold. Everyone is encouraged to place themselves within the exhibit, and it is difficult not to participate. I was immediately transported back to my work commute, listening to Bob Edwards on Morning Edition come to the realization that the first plane crash was not an accident. In the space of a few footfalls images from throughout the day flashed through my mind, and associations long since dispersed became tactile once again: the smell of a closed office building, the harsh glow of fluorescent lighting, the co-workers that I never really liked yet commiserated with on that day, and finally the image of smoke rising above Manhattan as my plane descended into Newark airport three weeks later.

Certainly the most evocative space is a small remembrance chapel set in the center of the memorial. Bench seating is provided for those who wish to reflect upon the stories of each person lost on that day. Names and vital statistics are projected on the walls while surviving friends and relatives recount anecdotes about victims (or perhaps the survivors are the victims?) As I sat and listened, I asked myself from where did the feelings come? I did not know anyone who perished in the attacks. What was it about the exhibit that would provoke the kind of intense response I experienced? The purpose of the memorial — to draw upon my own experiences to create something unique — weaves shared threads throughout the culture that allows us to connect at a social level without possessing commonalities.

Exhibit curators encourage personalization through their focus on mundane artifacts. Computer diskettes and the display of a Home Depot receipt are intended to remind us that we could have easily been victims. “But for the grace of God go I.” This emphasis on the mundane is problematic, since it cannot be relied upon to provide context for the rest of the exhibit. It is, essentially, empty calories. While a little bit is satisfying, too much leaves one malnourished.

Interestingly, the Smithsonian caused a tremendous uproar in the 1990s when they included mundane items from Hiroshima in their Enola Gay exhibit design. These items — which included a burnt doll — were considered inflammatory and political. Veterans groups and members of Congress were in an uproar, and despite the museum’s effort to radically redesign the exhibit, the NASM director Martin Harwit resigned his job in the face of Congressional hearings. The public’s response to the 9/11 Memorial Museum indicates that the political message is more palatable when we are the victim and not the aggressor.

How does one not politicize a political act? The museum is hobbled by the memorial’s mission of solemnity. By the time one reaches the museum — a separate area beyond the memorial — the experience is so personalized that the hope of gaining understanding of events is dashed. Unvarnished introspection cannot occur, nor can we consider a framework in which al Qaeda is a rational actor (despite their terrorist tactics.) But if we are to gain a greater understanding of the world and America’s role as a geopolitical leader, that is exactly what we must do. The greatest opportunity this exhibit misses is allowing visitors to transcend provincialism and become cosmopolitan, if for only a few hours. Instead, we are only offered the chance to question why anyone would want to hurt us, a people who have never harmed others.

I left the exhibit with many questions. Foremost is how younger people who have no direct experience of the day will view the exhibit. This can only become the proverbial statue in the park, a plaque with names of those who perished a century ago, and the projection of our own experiences onto historical events that bear no resemblance to days past. Perhaps striking “museum” from the name would help. This would certainly solve the problem of relying upon mundane artifacts to manipulate visitors while leaving them without a cohesive perspective. Unfortunately, it doesn’t meet the higher expectations of solid public history. The 9/11 Memorial Museum suffers from an identity crisis: triangulating the needs and desires of survivors, mythologizing the role of the Twin Towers, and claiming to present a scholarly history of related events. Predictably it fails to rise above the banal.

The conversation continues on Twitter at #BeingAmerican. For other perspectives about the Enola Gay controversy visit the AHA’s “Historians Protest New Enola Gay Exhibit.”

On #BeingAmerican

My current project examines the relationships between national, social, and individual identities, and how we view ourselves as American. Identity is like the Evil Queen’s Magic Mirror: it has defined boundaries and function, but everyone approaches it with different expectations and leaves with a personalized experience. It is not surprising then to find tremendous differences in personal beliefs while observing a shared definition and purpose. This has been the theme threaded through several recent readings.

At the end of my graduate coursework I wrote a state of the field paper that included Gretchen Murphy’s Hemispheric Imaginings: The Monroe Doctrine and Narratives of U.S. Empire. The book examines how the Monroe Doctrine evolved throughout the nineteenth century; specifically, Murphy uses discourse analysis to show that popular culture contained many of the concepts that politicians and thought leaders adopted in their policies. Monroe’s nascent framework was nearly stillborn: it grew slowly, branching into different interpretations, each waxing and waning as our nation’s agenda and influence changed. The relationship between American social identity and political forces is direct and powerful. Even contemporary assertions that the Monroe Doctrine is dead ignore its incorporation into American identity.

Of interest today is a problem that Murphy identified in the opening of her Introduction:

Even the name “America” bespeaks the crisis; conventionally used to designate the cultural identity of the United States, its implicit erasure of Latin America and Canada is now painfully apparent…

For Murphy, the solution is to coin the term “USAmericans.” A bit clunky at first, I quickly realized it was effective for distinguishing between the various Americas of the present day. Recognizing the contemporary hubris of USAmericans to co-opt the identity of an entire hemisphere is a first step to respecting other cultures between Ellesmere and Patagonia.

Later, historian Jonathan Wilson posted the following to Twitter. “USians” indicated a trend and, upon chatting with him, he also offered his awareness of the term “Statism.”

However, our view of the hemisphere is much different today than in the nineteenth century, and one could accuse Murphy of performing Whiggish history (although in fairness she is a professor of English.) Did we view ourselves as rightful claimants to the title in the early days of the republic? Was there competition for the title at that time? Or are we simply projecting present-day concerns into the past?

I grabbed my copy of The Federalist and examined the thirty-four uses of the string “American.” Like those of us in the present day, the term is used to identify not only the new nation but also those members who comprise the cultural and civic body. That may be less surprising when one considers the neighborhood at that time: Great Britain, Spain, and France controlled most of the remaining western hemisphere and maritime routes, providing imperial perspectives for the non-indigenous peoples.

What is interesting about The Federalist is how Madison and Hamilton employ the word. While the latter favors its use in describing a regime, dominion, and state, Madison is quite comfortable using it as a container for the members of the new nation. Neither have a problem with excluding other western hemisphere societies.

Consider Hamilton’s remark in Federalist no. 11:

They foresee the dangers that may threaten their American dominions from the neighborhood of States, which have all the dispositions, and would possess all the means, requisite to the creation of a powerful marine.

He not only uses the term to describe various dominions within a geographic region, but he elevates the new nation to the status of a significant player. This statement asserts the role of the United States as a legitimate force in the Atlantic world, and foretells the development of attitudes and policies in the nineteenth century.

Madison, however, clearly favors the term to describe individuals as members of a society. Already in 1789, he views his cohort as one body, an organism evolved to conquer the vast geography of the continent and repel external dangers, as witnessed in Federalist no. 14:

…the kindred blood which flows in the veins of American citizens, the mingled blood which they have shed in defense of their sacred rights, consecrate their Union, and excite horror at the idea of their becoming aliens, rivals, enemies.

The metaphor of the body is powerful, capturing the profound diversity of the nation’s citizenry, their interdependency on one another, and the transcendence beyond the sum of their parts. Although the brain and the liver are profoundly different and may work at cross-purposes from time to time — at least my brain regularly enjoys the alcohol that my liver must work to remove — they cannot exist without each other, and both clearly belong to something greater than themselves (at times, anyway.) By addressing this interdependency, Madison presages notions of being American. Whether deliberate or not, he is creating space for popular and civic culture to begin defining the boundaries of a national identity, a space that will be molded and kneaded by myriad factions throughout the history of the United States. This process not only shapes identity but also circumscribes the behavior of future actors.

Nearly 125 years later, the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan would focus its rebranding on notions of American identity. Dr. Kelly Baker deftly examines this process in her book, Gospel According to the Klan: The KKK’s Appeal to Protestant America, 1915-1930. Although Baker — a historian of religion — warns us to maintain a boundary between the KKK and white, Protestant America, it is not irresponsible to place the KKK at a different point on the same continuum of American social identity. In essence, the Klan is looking into the same Magic Mirror as the rest of us.

Indeed, Baker draws the connection early:

The Klan gained a following because of its twin messages of nation and faith, and the fraternity progressed because of members’ commitment to its religious vision of America and her foundations.

Americans — USAmericans, USians, etcetera — have always expressed discomfort when facing down groups like the Klan. We tend to look at them as boils or abscesses on the body, and our social narrative regularly “others” such groups to preserve its pristine nature. Although identity is necessarily fictional by nature, such preservation is counterproductive to understanding the true capacity of it, where it originates, and how it might evolve in response to certain social pressures. It may be full of pus, but it’s our pus, and more importantly it is representative of processes within our civic body.

The space carved out by Madison et al. to debate the notion of American identity is still in use today, and still contains the momentum of that early legacy. Each iteration of cultural debate and policy depends upon the previous. Both Murphy and Baker successfully trace their subject matter through to the present, and both have their foundations in the late eighteenth century. In fact, I would argue that losing sight of Madison’s body metaphor constitutes the greatest internal threat. While it may be time to encompass other cultures in what we consider to be American, we must also strive to encompass the many factions within the body of the United States. Only through an honest assessment of what we are can we shape who we will become.

I would love to hear your thoughts. You can find me on Twitter using #BeingAmerican.

What the Trouble with Really Tells Us

The recent implementation of the website garnered considerable media coverage, as poor functionality and reliability provided fodder for politicians, partisans, and pundits. One of the more common causes cited for the disappointing launch was programming incompetence, but some discussion of a broken procurement system lent a bit of variety to the discussion. Right-wing ideologues took advantage of the situation to demonize the public sector and renew their call for further privatization (see the so-called “Yellow Pages” letter) although much of the development work was actually carried out by private contractors. I think much of this misses the heart of the matter: the implementation of highlights weaknesses in the core IT competence of the United States government (public sector) at a time when technology should be a central component of our strategy for global competitiveness.

Office WorkersEssentially, I am making the argument that bureaucracy offers important benefits that Washington, D.C. should embrace. Despite its negative connotation, a certain level of bureaucracy is essential to any organization wishing to grow and codify its position, whether that organization is a powerful nation-state or a multinational corporation. As large organizations create rules and processes to operate efficiently and effectively, cultural knowledge develops. This cultural knowledge — vetted and evangelized throughout the organization — represents intelligence that provides competitive advantage, branding, and a language for customer interaction. It is organizational knowledge that is passed between generations, which promotes stability and, like many forms of knowledge, confers competitive advantage. Despite being described as anti-democratic and despotic, bureaucracy learns how to serve its customer (e.g., the current administration) more effectively than an entity from outside of the organization that does not have the same customer relationship.

One current political assertion rarely debated is that outsourcing enables effectiveness by lowering costs through competitiveness. The practice allows public sector departments to shrink their staff while selecting specialists to work on specific projects. Dogma states that the private sector must be more efficient as its workers are highly motivated to excel and attain valued skills. That is possibly supportable when limiting the analysis to balance sheet performance, but the argument certainly collapses when intangibles like strategic advantage are considered. Balance sheets are important, but many truly innovative organizations grant themselves adequate leeway to explore strategic directions that fall well beyond the definition of efficiency, and we laud their behavior. The public sector must innovate, learn, and consolidate just like the private sector, and this can only happen with a distinct and healthy bureaucratic organization. In my experience as a business process analyst, I observed that outsourced partners could not leverage customer knowledge as well as internal teams. When this leverage does not exist, Information Technology is not considered integral to the organization’s mission. Thus, it cannot be strategic, and its benefits are not optimized.

As the century progresses, the level of IT mastery found in our public sector and its incorporation into strategic planning will relate to the level of success experienced in areas such as finance, security, and logistics. Eschewing IT bureaucracy will insure a sub-optimal understanding of customer requirements and exclude this critical asset from strategic planning. Already we see how countries like Taiwan employ technology to drive their health care costs below 7% of GDP, about one-third of the U.S. level. Recent efforts to disrupt the education sector with technology demands that greater care be taken when considering our public education strategy vis-à-vis the industrialized world.

The debacle of is not a failure of a single development team as much as it is an inadequate response by a depleted system. Cultural knowledge that could have informed the design, construction, and assimilation of new technology has been systematically dismantled over the past three decades. Most important is to remember that bureaucracy is not about political ideology, it is about understanding the framework in which policy is executed. That is cultural intelligence. Because this form of intelligence is not nurtured and passed from generation to generation, our expectations of success must be necessarily lower. The use of outsourced resources to fulfill work orders like will sacrifice customer awareness and collaboration for characteristics like staffing flexibility. That appears attractive as a tactic, but is useless as a core competence. Policy makers need to consider whether the United States can maintain its hegemony in a technological environment without a robust IT bureaucracy.

Summer Reading

Finally, I’m back to reading what I want. It should be a good summer.

Adams, Brooks. The law of civilization and decay; an essay on history. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1897.

Adams wrote one of the first and certainly one of the most influential essays justifying American imperialism (TR cited him.) He and Turner set the tone for American expansionist thought.

Banks, Iain M. Consider Phlebas. New York: Orbit Books, 2008.

I have already started this one, picking it up after hearing about Banks’ cancer. Sadly, he died this week.

Bradbury, Ray. Zen in the Art of Writing. Santa Barbara: Joshua Odell Editions, 1996.

I need to nurture my creative side a bit.

Foucault, Michel. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979. Edited by Michel Senellart. Translated by Graham Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

For my Great Famine paper. This may require copious amounts of vodka.

Martin, George R. R. Game of Thrones: A Song of Fire and Ice: Book One. New York: Random House Digital, 2003.

I’m hooked on the series. It’s time to try the books.

Nally, David P. Human Encumberances: Political Violence and the Great Irish Famine. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2011.

Nally is a geographer and Reader at Cambridge. He wrote a compelling, if sometimes problematic, article on biopolitics and the Great Famine. I’m excited to see what he does with this monograph.

Vance, Jack. Tales of the Dying Earth. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, LLC, 1998.

Jack Vance was described as the greatest science fiction author you never knew. This is a volume of four novels. You can find me at the lake wall…

Williams, William Appleman. The Contours of American History. New York: Verso, 2011.

Williams was a brilliant and outspoken diplomatic historian. Contours and The Tragedy of American Diplomacy have both been reissued for their 50th anniversaries, with new introductions by Greg Grandin and Andrew Bacevich, respectively (both writing for The American Empire Project.)

The Legacy of Vincent de Paul

On June 16th I will graduate with an M.A. in History from DePaul University. It has been a good experience, but it was with consternation that I read an email from Rev. Holtschneider, the President of the university, pitching a plan for a new basketball stadium at McCormick Place in Chicago. The plan is an irresponsible allocation of public resources, and enables city leaders to “Christmas shop” while ignoring serious fiscal issues in the city.

The numbers seem to vary depending upon who you read, but the total cost is being estimated between $210 million and $300 million. It would include the 12,000 seat stadium, hotels, and street-level improvements for restaurants and shopping. DePaul would contribute $70 million in order to build a “first-rate college [basketball] program.”

DePaul makes this investment for several reasons. College basketball presents high-impact opportunities to promote our reputation. Alumni find the broadened name recognition a help when competing for jobs nationally. This first-class facility and its more central location will help us build on the momentum our basketball program has enjoyed in recent years from hiring first-rate coaches and staff.

Rev. Dennis H. Holtschneider, C.M.

This is extraordinarily confusing for a number of reasons. First, DePaul’s basketball program has languished since its glory days of Ray Meyer in the 1980s. Last year, the team was 11-21, and they are barely better over the past five years. Departmental budgets have been cut to the point where professors have limited ability to print and photocopy classroom materials. Academic conference budgets are non-existent.

The city of Chicago is a clusterfuck. Police, fire, public health clinics, and sanitation are all under strain. Schools are closing and Mayor Emanuel is pressing for school privatization. Property and sales taxes are very high and corporations are cutting deals to stay in the city in exchange for huge tax breaks. The neoliberal experiment is embraced with abandon but failing miserably.

The only people who think this is a good idea are those pushing it. Rev. Holtschneider “expects this project to produce 3,000 to 5,000 permanent jobs, along with 5,000 construction jobs during the building phase.” I cannot begin to imagine how that might happen, and neither can other urban planning consultants interview by the Chicago Sun-Times (the story is behind a paywall.) City leaders are faced with the law of diminishing returns: Chicago is already a vibrant tourist and convention destination, and DePaul is already selling tickets at its current arena in Rosemont. Adding more capacity in the city is nothing more than a shell game that will add little to the overall economy (the mayor of Rosemont is already in Springfield lobbying for concessions.)

While I appreciate the many conflicts that exist in the administration of a large organization like a university, I am disappointed that DePaul University is contributing to a development plan that will draw financial resources away from other necessities and make taxpayers responsible for more municipal debt. Ideally, Rev. Holtschneider should oppose the plan entirely and speak to the crisis of our public school system. At the very least, he should not contribute $70 million to a project that — like so many others in cities around the country — promises to be an under-utilized public asset for decades.

Although I am not Catholic (or even religious, for that matter) I have enjoyed learning about the life of Vincent de Paul, a seventeenth-century priest who founded a charitable order, counseled kings and queens, and seemingly lived the life of Jesus Christ through humility and good works. As a practical man, Vincent might have stood by while such a project was constructed, but he also would have counseled against depriving the population in order to achieve it.

The Future of the Footnote

I have considered the function of the footnote and the opportunities afforded by digital technology since entering graduate school. Recently, a brief exchange on Twitter with @Jason_M_Kelly and @lostinhistory prompted me to commit some ideas to “paper.” This is just a beginning, as I am sure there will be much more to add.

The footnote has evolved since the days of Edward Gibbon, when it achieved the status of high art. Today, it is certainly treated with less deference, although many authors are skilled at adding tremendous depth to their work with the footnote. Its most primary role is to cite source material. Linking the wider community to sources provides not only accountability but also information that leads to an exchange of ideas. Footnotes provide space for a counter-narrative. This may be less understood outside of the academy, but authors will typically use the footnote to address arguments that fall outside of their thesis. In this manner the footnote advances debate and illustrates historiography. Finally, at least for our purposes today, the footnote acts as a social network. Before the days of inexpensive global travel and international conferences in desirable destinations like Tallahassee, Florida, footnotes provided a way to answer the concerns of colleagues. This is a critical, albeit logistically outdated, function. New technologies provide an incredible opportunity to rethink the way we approach scholarship.

Coming from an Information Technology and business consulting background, I view the progress of global networks, cheap storage, cloud computing, hardware, and bandwidth as adequate precursors for rethinking the footnote. A new paradigm can maintain academic rigor while advancing the dissemination of information throughout the community. All of this can take place in an open source environment, flattening the current publication and distribution hierarchy by placing new toolsets and communication channels in the hands of content creators.

Let us take a glimpse at how the three roles of the traditional footnote might change.

Since citation is so important, new ways of identifying source material should be envisioned. While the URL is a beginning, and electronic analogues of paper documents (like the PDF file) include them, current technology makes it possible to embed source material into the note. If my thesis rests upon the interpretation of an eighteenth-century document, then presenting a digital rendering of the actual document is far superior than referencing its archive location or published transcript. Original text, three-dimensional renderings of material culture, comparisons of multiple editions, and audio/video/still photography can all be reproduced with higher quality and less expense in a digital format than on paper. This means that archives and libraries are going to have to step up their game at digitizing sources, and new forms of licensing like Creative Commons will have to be codified. However, none of this will happen if the academy does not take a firm position and champion the effort.

Although technology is a laggard in my field of History, there are initiatives to create online communities.[1] H-Net is a good social media platform, but it is still a listserv, which is 1990s technology. The digital footnote is begging to be a platform for scholars to engage each other in an ongoing, dynamic conversation. Why should the notes from a first edition remain static? If scholarly conversation occurs after publication, as it most surely will, there is no technological impediment to reflecting that dialog in the notes. The inclusion of book reviews, antitheses, or new research provides a more robust intellectual environment to engage the audience and continue the important function of illustrating historiography.

Imagine the value of a work like The Federalist, annotated throughout the life of our nation by scholars who applied their worldview and theoretical framework, sitting on your tablet device as a data-driven archive.

I am not suggesting a mere comment thread, although that could be a separate environment in which an author moderates an ongoing conversation with students and the public. Such a casual space allows the book to become its own social history. Even if this is not desirable, the important thing to remember is that it is possible. Authors can tailor their work to extend as far beyond their academic field as they wish (for survey classes or a non-academic audience.)

The footnote’s role in providing a counter-narrative also has great potential in the digital age, providing the ability for an author to draw an entire state-of-the-field into a single location. The presentation of such a dialog is no more limited than what we have already explored, and I am quite certain that others will exceed my imaginings.

To return to Jason’s point, the eBook needs to become more than an analogue of the printed book, and the footnote must also evolve. I see a web of scholarship connected through the footnote, controlled through an app and refreshed from the Cloud. The “book” itself is merely an entry point into a larger corpus of knowledge. A colleague told me that “footnotes are magical. There is nothing not to love about footnotes.” It is time to liberate the footnote from the bottom of the page and place it in a space that incorporates the historical event as well as the ongoing conversation about history.

I may stand in need of some apology for having used, without scruple, the authority of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in all that relates to the wars and negotiations of the Chersonites. I am aware that he was a Greek of the tenth century, and that his accounts of ancient history are frequently confused and fabulous. But on this occasion his narrative is, for the most part, consistent and probable; nor is there much difficulty in conceiving that an emperor might have access to some secret archives which had escaped the diligence of meaner historians.

Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire


[1] My comment does not consider the tremendous amount of work done in the digital humanities, which I don’t consider germane to this conversation. In this context I am only referring to social networking. No hate mail, please!

State of the Field Bibliography

Okay friends, #twitterstorians, and Early Americanists, I am writing a state of the field paper for my M.A. History capstone at DePaul and could use your suggestions for works to include in my bibliography. The focus is on the structural design and early development of the United States as a nation.

Below is my preliminary list; I will add to it over the next week based upon my reading and your ideas. I need to make sure the political science material is relevant (i.e., in the center of the conversation) or remove it.

I really appreciate your time and thoughts. Many thanks.

Gabrielson, Teena. “James Madison’s Psychology of Public Opinion.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (Sep 2009): 431-444.

Gould, Eliga H., and Peter S. Onuf, eds. Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Higginbotham, Don. “Some Reflections on the South in the American Revolution.” Journal of Southern History LXXIII (August 2007): 659-670.

Kersh, Rogan. “The Rhetorical Genesis of American Political Union.” Polity 33 (Winter 2000): 229-257.

Matthews, Richard K. “James Madison’s Political Theory: Hostage to Democratic Fortune.” Review of Politics 67 (Winter 2005): 49-67.

Murphy, Gretchen. Hemispheric Imaginings: the Monroe Doctrine and Narratives of U.S. Empire. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.

Onuf, Peter S. “The Revolution of 1803.” Wilson Quarterly 27 (Winter 2003): 22-29.

Pasley, Jeffrey L., Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds. Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Rauser, Amelia. “Death or Liberty: British Political Prints and the Struggle for Symbols in the American Revolution.” Oxford Art Journal 21 (1998): 153-171.

Robertson, David Brian. “Madison’s Opponents and Constitutional Design.” American Political Science Review 99 (May 2005): 225-243.

Schwarz, Michael. “The Great Divergence Reconsidered: Hamilton, Madison, and U.S.-British Relations, 1783-89.” Journal of the Early Republic 27 (Fall 2007): 407-436.

Sexton, Jay. The Monroe Doctrine: Empire and Nation in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2011.

Sheehan, Colleen A. “Madison v. Hamilton: The Battle over Republicanism and the Role of Public Opinion.” American Political Science Review 98 (Aug 2004): 405-424.

Stephanson, Anders. Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995.

Winik, Jay. Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800. New York: HarperCollins, 2007

Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: a History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

The Hermeneutics of Single-Sex Marriage

As the nation awaits the Supreme Court to deliver verdicts in the Proposition 8 and Defense of Marriage Act cases, the arguments being advanced by the evangelical community bear scrutiny. A historical examination of evangelical thought and the definition of traditional marriage as “one man and one woman” suggests an ironic relationship to the abolitionist and proslavery debates in the antebellum United States.

The two ideological battles share more in common than evangelical actors. In each case, Biblical literalism is important: first, because it is an inherent characteristic of the movement; and second, because different factions within the evangelical churches employ it to support their argument.

Proslavery arguments developed within the churches partly as a way to increase congregations and garner support from the planter class. [I won’t digress into that argument here, but there are some wonderful histories listed at the bottom of the post.] The thrust of the proslavery argument rested on the practice of slavery in the Old Testament and the lack of condemnation by Jesus and Paul in the New Testament. Providence, the sole provider of order in the world, included slavery. Evangelicals may have believed that slavery was the peculiar institution, but as long as it had been placed in the world by God, it was blasphemous for man to try to change things. This became an important point of debate.

When the abolition movement began, some evangelicals sought to advance a moral argument against slavery in the churches. These clerics advanced a hermeneutic called the seed growing secretly, which asserted that the seeds of a morality of equality and freedom was found in the New Testament, and they had grown and blossomed over the past eighteen centuries. Just as the Hebrew dispensation of divorce and polygamy had been superceded by the Christian dispensation, so too was slavery now superceded by the seed growing secretly. This argument required quite a bit of pretzel logic, and was successfully countered by the proslavery factions with the hermeneutic of plain sense (Biblical literalism.)

Put simply, conservative evangelicals supported proslavery because the Bible did, God had ordered the world in His wisdom, and man’s desire to radically restructure society was not only prideful but blasphemous. Liberal evangelicals opposed slavery because of an inherent equality found in the Golden Rule and the belief that one man should not be subordinate to another.

These opposing views, emanating from the same set of religious beliefs, pitted two factions that believed the other was committing the greatest blasphemy possible. It led to not only schism within several churches but also brothers taking up arms against one another.

Let’s jump forward to the present day. Conservative evangelicals are asserting that the institution of marriage is in jeopardy because different forms are being considered by the State. We are told that marriage “is defined as the union between one man and one woman.” It is certainly a valid position to take, but what hermeneutical must conservative evangelicals adopt to support their case?

The problem for conservatives is that the Old Testament supports many forms of marriage beyond the “one man and one woman” arrangement. Multiple wives, concubines, and bonded companions are all considered acceptable, and sanctioned by God. For conservatives to advance the “traditional” view of marriage, they must actually adopt the hermeneutical of the seed growing secretly, since their view of marriage has clearly evolved since the time of the Old Testament.

Making the argument for traditional marriage — and even worse, passing legislation to enforce it — is exactly the prideful social adjustment that antebellum conservative evangelicals accused Enlightenment liberals of undertaking. Today, the different factions in the same-sex marriage debate have adopted opposite poles as their antebellum brethren: conservative evangelicals are making an interpretative reading of the Bible in order to impose a morality not found in the Bible. This conflict is being hinted at by modern liberals, but the actual gravity of the transgression against scripture is not often argued, probably because most liberals choose to consider the matter civil and not religious.

I often wonder how many conservative evangelicals understand the evolution of thought that supports their ideology. Hermeneutics inform, more than teach, the average congregational member. The hermeneutic of the seed growing secretly is not something that is discussed in a sermon, but at some level it shapes the sermon delivered during worship. For that reason, something that was once considered so heinous that it demanded bloodshed is now gleefully accepted to achieve modern objectives.

Keep reading! I’m sure many of you will take an exception to this post. There are a lot of good resources to help shape the argument. Here are a few:

Daly, John Patrick. When Slavery was Called Freedom: Evangelicalism, Proslavery, and the Causes of the Civil War. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002.

You can find Daly on Amazon.

Harrill, J. Albert. “The Use of the New Testament in the American Slave Controversy: A Case History in theHermeneutical Tension between Biblical Criticism and Christian Moral Debate.” Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation 10 (Summer 2000): 149-186.

Here is the JSTOR link to Harrill.

Noll, Mark. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

You can find Noll on Amazon.